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    Dept. of Human ICT Convergence H-Lab is developing a platform for enhancing empathetic communication

    Dr. Carl Benedikt Frey and Michael A. Osborne from Oxford University, UK mentioned that ‘creativity’ and ‘empathy’ are the two most important abilities for the 4th Industrial Revolution. Recently, many research activities to enhance ‘creativity and ‘empathy’ by applying AI are receiving great attention due to increased interest in these abilities. H-Lab at the Department of Human ICT Convergence of SKKU (Advising professor: Jun Dong CHO) is working on developing a platform for enhancing empathy that helps to improve motivation of self-actualization. Throughout the convergence research activities on humanities and science, they are analyzing how ‘empathy’ helps to strengthen people’s social intelligence. Also, the center is developing a communication platform and smart appliances by using tangible/physical avatars, and virtual avatars. “This is very original research which is difficult to find nationally and internationally. Our center will do our best to promote our research competence all over the world and to improve quality of life by enhancing empathic communication skills,” said Prof. CHO who established the ‘Human ICT Convergence’ department at SKKU.

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    Prof. Sang Hoon BAE Gives Guest Keynote Lecture at the Finland Ministry of Education and Culture

    Prof. Sang Hoon BAE from the Department of Education at SKKU received an invitation to give a keynote lecture together with Prof. Gil G. NOAM from Harvard University at a seminar regarding "The Effect of Extracurricular Learning and Cultural Activities on Students' Individual Growth and Social Development" held by the Finland Ministry of Education and Culture. This seminar introduces the benefits of after-school leisure activities on children's development and growth. It will also examine and debate whether Finnish education experts can increase the provision of after-school activities and various leisure classes. Prof. Sang Hoon BAE and Prof. NOAM will introduce a global expansion education model and future trends in Finland, along with a core project to promote artistic and cultural exchange for children and adolescents. They will also present the results of relevant major projects so far at the seminar. The seminar will be held in English at the National Museum of Finland auditorium on March 13th, 2018. The seminar is intended for artistic and cultural operators, art-based education organizers, local governments, school principals, teachers, and policy makers. Sampo TERHO, the Minister for European Affairs, Culture and Sports, will preside over the opening, and Riitta KAIVOSOJA, the Director General of the Ministry of Education, will chair the seminar. Prof. Sang Hoon BAE is not only the Dean of the SKKU University Education Innovation Center; he is also currently the editor-in-chief of the International Journal for Reserach on Extended Education, which deals with school research on after-school activities around the world. More information can be found at the following link: http://minedu.fi/artikkeli/-/asset_publisher/suomeen-kaksi-koulupaivan-kehittamisen-kansainvalista-huippuasiantuntijaa?_101_INSTANCE_0R8wCyp3oebu_languageId=en_US

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    Samsung SDI and SKKU Academic-Industrial Agreement Ceremony

    Sungkyunkwan University and Samsung SDI held an academic-industrial agreement ceremony on February 2nd, 2018 at the Engineering Building 2 conference room. The signing ceremony was attended by the President of SKKU, Dr. Kyu Sang CHUNG, and the CEO of Samsung SDI, Young Hyun JUN. From SKKU the Dean of the Research & Business Foundation and Vice President Ji Beom YOO, Prof. Young June KIM (Representative Professor of the Research & Business Foundation, SAINT), Prof. Chil Gee LEE (Department of Semiconductor Systems Engineering), Prof. Won Sub YOON (Department of Energy Science),Prof. Ji Man KIM (Department of Chemistry), Prof. Pil Jin YOO (Department of Chemical Engineering), Prof. Jin Kyu LEE (Department of Computer Science and Engineering), and Prof. Eui Hwan SONG (SAINT) participated in the ceremony. From Samsung SDI, Vice President Hyuk JANG (Director of Research), Vice President Yoo Mi KIM (Manager of Small Battery Development Division), Executive Director Gi Ho KIM (Director of Medium and Large Battery Cell Development), Executive Director Jeong Soon SHIN (Group Leader of Medium and Large Battery Model Development), Director Tae Kyung LEE (Group Leader of Medium and Large System-Based Technology), Executive Director Kwang Sung KIM (Director of Human Resources), Director Ho Joon SONG (Director of Planning), and Director Tae Il YOON (Group Leader of Technology Planning) participated in the ceremony. Samsung SDI, a global leader in secondary batteries, has set up a joint research center for lithium-ion battery and BMS research for electric vehicles, and will support research funding of 2 billion won for 4 years. Both organizations have agreed to expand cooperation through research and personnel exchanges. An executive from SDI will give a guest lecture at the joint research project briefing (scheduled for April 30th), and the Human Resources team plans to hold a separate recruitment fair.

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    SKKU Graduate School Holds Graduate School Fairs in Daejeon and Daegu

    Sungkyunkwan University (President: Dr. Kyu Sang CHUNG) General Graduate School will hold a 'General Graduate School Fair' for prospective graduate school students. The graduate school fair will be held on March 23rd in Daejeon at the Korea Rail Network Authority Convention Room, and on March 30th in Daegu at the DongDaegu KTX Station, Meeting Room 102. The fair is aimed at outstanding students in key regions who are currently enrolled undergraduates or who have recently graduated and are interested in attending graduate school at SKKU. Detailed contents of the fair include an introduction of the graduate school by Soon Won LEE, Dean of the General Graduate School, an introduction of application guidelines and strategy by the Admissions Division, and case presentations by currently enrolled students. Applications can be made through the online application site (http://graduateschool.skku.edu/regional) from March 5th until March 16th. Please refer to the SKKU homepage (http://www.skku.edu) or the Admissions homepage (https://gradschool.skku.edu). Soon Won LEE, Dean of the General Graduate School, said, "I thought it was necessary to provide practical information, which can be difficult to find, for students who are worrying about going to graduate school. Graduate school can be an excellent choice for students who dream of becoming future 'experts' because it provides more in-depth education and research than undergraduate studies."

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    Prof. Won Sub YOON develops high-performance battery that can travel up to 400km with one charge

    A research team led by Prof. Won-Sub YOON, Department of Energy Science (DOES) at Sungkyunkwan University, has lifted the fundamental restriction on the breaking point of the lattice and unraveled the enigma of nickel effect on layered cathode materials that has existed for decades in the battery field. Consequently, they discovered the possibility of developing a high-performance battery which can travel up to 400km by one charge. While the technology of lithium ion batteries has been greatly successful since its advent in powering portable electronic devices, further advancements are insatiably demanding for wider applications such as in electric vehicles and grid-power storages. One of the key areas in these efforts is development of new positive electrode ‘cathode’ materials with higher energy densities to replace the lithium cobalt oxide that is currently prevailing as the cathode material. The research is very focused on increasing the amount of Li-ions ‘inserted’ in the electrode material, which affects the charge storage capacity, the speed of Li-ion movement within the crystal lattice of the electrode material, which affects the battery power, and the structural stability of the material upon in-and-out transport of Li-ion, which affects the battery life. Compared to other material families, the ‘layered’ materials are the most attractive in the sense of the three attributes listed above, and layered lithium transition metal oxides containing nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn) have recently emerged as a promising family of cathode materials. Aside from lithium ions, other elements play a role as building blocks forming a host structure for Li-ions (guests) to be inserted or extracted. Depending on the properties of the host structure, its electrochemical performance as a battery material is determined. For these multi-component layered systems, the current trend moves toward increasing the content of Ni in layered systems (known as Ni-rich layered materials) since Ni is capable of uptaking and delivering twice the charge, i.e., Li-ions of the other two. As Ni atoms occupy a large part of the transition metal layer in the host structure, it becomes a major factor in determining the overall properties of the host structure. Therefore, understanding the effect of increasing Ni content on the layered structure is important to designing high-energy electrode materials. This series of materials containing Ni and other elements appear to inevitably have so-called ‘cation disorder,’ a phenomenon in which some of the Li-ions and Ni atoms switch positions from their own layers. This happens due to the fact that some of the Ni atoms exist in the valence state 2+ lower than Co or Mn as synthesized. The presence of Ni atoms in the Li-ion layer adversely affects the Li-ion movement in the Li-ion layer. In contrast to such a general perception, the study finds that the degree of cation disorders is mitigated upon increasing the Ni content in the lattice up to a certain concentration, and also reports that the oxidation state of Ni in the pristine compounds contributes significantly to cation disorder. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the extent of cation disorder critically affects the phase transition behavior during charging or discharging, and as a result, the phase transition becomes smoother with increasing Ni content. This smooth phase transition reduces the strain on structural behavior during cycling; consequently, it enhances the cycle performance of the electrode material. In addition to the relationship between the Ni content and the phase transition, it was discovered that the actual environment in which Li-ions are situated is not directly linked to the total height, a sum of the Li-ion layer and the transition metal layer (c-axis). The height of the lithium layer becomes larger with increasing Ni content, even though the c-axis decreases. More importantly, it is shown that the lithium ion channel retains the environment where lithium ions can visit or leave, even if the c-axis shrinks from the initial dimension. The results for the Ni-rich layered materials that are counter-intuitive account for the superior electrochemical performance, and address the misconception of Ni element in Ni-rich layered systems. Furthermore, this article provides a new perspective on the role of Ni in layered systems and disputes the conventional view concerning the c-axis parameter that has been considered a key factor in interpreting the behavior of Li-ion movement and the corresponding electrochemical performance. Hence, these results may suggest some aspects to consider in the design of high-energy electrode materials for next-generation batteries.

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    Creation of Two-Terminal Tunneling Random Access Memory (TRAM) Inspired by Brain Neurons

    A new memory device inspired by the neuron connections of the human brain has been designed. The research, published in Advanced Materials as a back cover paper, highlights the device's highly reliable performance, long retention time, and endurance. Moreover, its flexibility makes it a promising tool for the next-generation soft electronics attached to clothes or the body. The brain is able to learn and memorize thanks to a huge number of connections between neurons. The information humans memorize is transmitted through synapses from one neuron to the next as an electro-chemical signal. Inspired by these connections, scientists constructed a memory called two-terminal tunneling random access memory (TRAM), where two electrodes referred to as 'drain' and 'source' resemble the two communicating neurons of the synapse. TRAM is made up of a stack of one-atom-thick or a few-atoms-thick 2D crystal layers: the semiconductor molybdenum disulfide (drain and source), a tunneling insulator of aluminum oxide (Al2O3), and a floating gate of graphene layer. The researchers secured a large-area memory integration technology using a large-area grown graphene and a two-dimensional semiconductor through chemical vapor deposition (CVD). In simple terms, memory creates program (logical-0) and erase (logical-1) states by charging and discharging the graphene floating gate through the h-BN tunneling barrier. By effective charge tunneling through the crystalline h-BN layer and storing charges in the graphene layer, TRAM demonstrates an ultimately low off-state current of 10-14 A, leading to ultra high off/on ratio over 109 about 103 times higher than other two-terminal memories. Furthermore, the absence of thick, rigid blocking oxides enables high flexibility, which is useful for soft electronics. Our memory device can be useful for next-generation neuromorphic systems and wearable, body-attachable electronics in the near future. </span /> </span /> </span /> </span /> Tunneling-memory fabricated by stacking 2D graphene and molybdenum sulfide

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    Research on Short Career Horizons and Firm Innovation by Prof. Sang Kyun KIM

    As the business environment is rapidly changing, firms are required to formulate and implement strategies which help them to adapt to environmental and technological changes, to achieve innovation and long-term competitive advantages, and even to survive. Strategy scholars view a company's chief executive officer (CEO) as the most powerful actor in the decision-making process and call for further research to understand the role of CEOs in the innovation process beyond the simple relationship between CEOs' personal characteristics and financial performance. Building on labor market evaluations and legacy conservation motivation perspectives that explain risk aversion by CEOs facing a short career horizon, this study seeks to unpack the mechanisms linking a CEO's career horizon to a firm's breakthrough innovations. Using 10-year panel data from 681 U.S. firms, we find that a short career horizon induces a CEO to become risk-averse and thus forego investing in risky breakthrough innovations because they could harm the firm's short-term performance, endangering job prospects and CEO legacies in the short term. The results also show that the impact of a short career horizon on breakthrough innovations is partially mediated by a reduction in R&D spending. Furthermore, different performance implications associated with a firm’s exploitation and exploration activities affect a CEO's willingness to commit to such breakthrough innovations. That is, when a firm leverages internal knowledge within a familiar technological domain (i.e., a focus on exploitation), this mitigates the behavioral tendencies of a CEO with a short career horizon, such as not pursuing breakthrough innovations, while such behavioral tendencies are exacerbated when a firm applies external technologies with an unfamiliar trajectory (i.e., a focus on exploration). This study contributes to the literature on CEO decision-making and firm innovation. First, our study contributes to the literature on CEO decision-making by elucidating a mechanism that can explain the influence of a CEO’s career horizon on a firm’s ability to generate breakthrough innovations. Second, we emphasize the role of CEOs in the innovation process by suggesting that motivational factors can shape a CEO’s willingness to allocate firm resources to risky projects, which in turn can affect firms achieving breakthrough innovations. Practically, this research provides insights to those seeking to develop breakthrough innovations and manage organizational learning and innovation process for their firms. The alignment between a CEO’s willingness to take risks and a firm’s emphasis on organizational learning in both familiar and unfamiliar technological trajectories has an influence on firm innovations. It implies that CEOs play an important role in producing breakthrough innovations and that a strategic alignment between the willingness to take risks and the firm’s engagement in risky strategies can enable the firm to achieve greater innovations.

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    SKKU-Leiden Joint Forum was Successfully Held on Jan 31st

    The SKKU-Leiden University Joint Forum was successfully held on Jan 31st at the SKKU 600th Anniversary Hall. This forum was the 2nd join forum after the 1st forum held in Leiden University during June 30th ~ July 1st in 2016. At the forum, 5 professors from the Department of East Asian Studies at SKKU and 4 professors from the Leiden University Institute for Area Studies (LIAS) participated and spent time to discuss subjects such as: culture, arts in China and Japan, labor and human rights in North Korea, and Korean history with new perspectives. The Leiden University Institute for Area Studies (LIAS) is a global research institute with long tradition and excellent academic competence. Also, it has created some of the world’s top interdisciplinary research performance in the field of Asian Studies. From the forum, the Academy of East Asian Studies at SKKU is expected to expand its global academic network into the European region and prepare the ground for sustainable and productive joint research with Leiden University.

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    Highly Efficient Thin-Film Transistor via Cross-Linking 1T Edge Functional 2H Molybdenum Disulfides

    Research on flexible thin film transistors (TFTs) has been steadily under way, with the next generation devices being noted. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), one of the two-dimensional materials, has excellent optical, electrical and chemical properties and is used in field effect transistors (FETs). However, most of the synthesis studies are concentrated on chemical vapor deposition, and it is necessary to make a method to manufacture MoS2 while maintaining crystallinity through an inexpensive solution process. In this study, MoS2 FET was implemented through a solution process by selectively modifying the edge of MoS2 only with organic compounds, without using metal ions at all. The paper was published in ACS Nano (2017, 11, 12832-12839) by the researchers led by Hyoyoung LEE (CINAP-IBS, Professor of Chemistry) with Mun Seok JEONG (Professor of Energy Science). To exfoliate the 2D MoS2 bulk materials into single-layer edge-1T basal-2H MoS2 sheets, they used 4-carboxy-benzenediazonium (+N2-benzene-COOH) tetrafluoroborate. Edge-exposed nucleophilic sulfides of the bulk MoS2 can act as substitutes for the electrophiles of +benzene-COOH diazonium salts. The chemically attached polar COOH functional group facilitates the exfoliation by creating an increased electrostatic repulsion force between the MoS2 nanosheets. As a result, the configuration of the resulting exfoliated HOOC-benzene-MoS2 sheets (e-MoS2) is changed to the conducting 1T or 1T′ phase through functionalization at the edge part, while remaining in the semiconducting 2H phase at the basal plane. Compared with n-BuLi exfoliated MoS2 (n-MoS2) and basal plane functionalized MoS2 (b-MoS2), which mainly have metallic 1T or 1T′ phase during the chemical treatment showing the on/off ratio of <100, e-MoS2 has a relatively high mobility (μ= 1.2 cm2/(V s) and on/off ratio (= 106) due to the low number of defect sites in the e-MoS2 nanosheets. PDDA (polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride) is used as a cationic layer, while e-MoS2 is used as an anionic layer for the channel film formation. Cross-linking via hydrogen bonding of the negatively charged COOH of the e-MoS2 sheets with the help of a cationic polymer provided good film formation for solution processing TFT channels. The e-MoS2 TFT exhibited great electrical performance (average mobility of 170.8 cm2/(V s) at 1 V and on/off ratio of 106) on SiO2/Si substrates and also a high mobility of 36.34 cm2/(V s) (on/off ratio of 103) on PDMS/PET substrates for flexible TFTs. This edge functionalization can be applied to various 2D layered bulk inorganic materials for the chemical, electronic, optical, and electrical modulation of 2D materials. This study is meaningful in terms of the significant potential of functionalized 2D materials in various bulk devices and low-cost electronics.

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    H.E. Ernesto Cordero Arroyo, Speaker of the Mexican Senate, Gives Special Lecture at SKKU

    On January 23, Sungkyunkwan University (President: Kyu Sang CHUNG) invited H.E. Ernesto Cordero Arroyo, the Speaker of the Mexican Senate, to give a special lecture. Senator Arroyo graduated from the Mexican Autonomous Institute of Technology (ITAM) and earned a master’s degree in economics from the University of Pennsylvania, USA. He then served as the Director of Integral Administration of Risks in the Banco Nacional de Obras y Servicios Publicos (BANOBRAS), the Undersecretary of Energetic and Technological Development Planning in the Energy Secretariat, the Head of the Social Development Secretariat, and the Finance Secretary of Mexico. Senator Arroyo gave a special lecture on the topic of “Mexico in a Changing World: Challenges and Opportunities.” He explained the current situation in Mexico, a center of massive political and economic change, and explained to students how Mexico will overcome this uncertainty. Senator Arroyo’s visit to South Korea was made possible through an invitation from Sye Kyun CHUNG, the Speaker of the Korean National Assembly. Senator Arroyo wished to visit Sungkyunkwan University, the oldest university in Korea, and give a special lecture at SKKU because of his interest in Education. SKKU’s President Kyu Sang CHUNG said, “Mexico is the center of the Korean Wave in Central and South America. Through Senator Arroyo’s visit, a variety of projects are being planned with several universities in order to realize not only education and research, but practical exchange and cooperation between students and cultures.”

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